LGBT HISTORY

 

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Historical Notes

1969
The Stonewall Riots ignited the gay rights movement.


1978

Gay activists Harvey Milk is elected to San Francisco Board of Supervisors. 20 days later he is murdered by Supervisor Dan White.


1983

U.S. Rep. Gerry Studds, D-Mass., becomes first member of Congress to acknowledge his homosexuality.

 


1987

U.S. Rep. Barney Frank, D-Mass., becomes the second member of Congress to state he is gay.


1987

Between 250k to 500k gays and lesbians and their supporters converge on Washington for the largest gay rights demonstration ever.

 

1987
ACT-UP is formed.

 


1990

President George H. Bush signs the National Hate Crimes Act, the first to include gays.


1990

Militant group Queer Nation founded.


1993

The Donít Ask Donít Tell policy is instituted for U.S. military.


1995

President Clinton signs executive order forbidding the denial of security clearances on basis of sexual orientation.


1998

President Clinton signs the Defense of Marriage Act, denying the federal benefits to same-sex spouses.

 

2000
Vermont becomes first state to legalize civil unions between gay and lesbian couples.

 

 

2004
Same sex marriages become legal in Massachusetts.


2004

U.S. Senate defeats measure to create constitutional amendment limiting marriage to heterosexual.

 

2010
Repeal of US Military's Don't Ask Don't Tell Policy.

 

2013
U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Defense of Marriage Act and California's Proposition 8.

 

2015
U.S. Supreme Court declares same-sex marriage legal in United States.

 


Historical Resources

LGBT Time Line
History of Gay America
LGBT Civil Liberties in America

Stonewall & Gay Pride: Echoes From 1969

Wikipedia: Stonewall Riots

LGBT Fight for Freedom

Fordham: People With a History
Our Agenda: Love, Equality, Pride
Pride History

LGBT Celebration
Gay Marriage History
NBJC Celebrates Black LGBT History Month
LGBT Historical Archive
Berkeley LGBT Historical Overview
New History Lab
About Gay Life: Gay History Facts
Gay History Quiz
GSA For Safe Schools: LGBT History Quiz Timeline
 

 


Stonewall Riots

June 28, 1969
 

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.

 


Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. Early homophile groups in the U.S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, and they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, however, were very contentious, as many social movements were active, including the African American Civil Rights Movement, the Counterculture of the 1960s, and antiwar demonstrations. These influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots.

Very few establishments welcomed openly gay people in the 1950s and 1960s. Those that did were often bars, although bar owners and managers were rarely gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia. It catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, and homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers quickly lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. They attracted a crowd that was incited to riot. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, and again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents quickly organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested.
 


 

After the Stonewall riots, gays and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race, class, and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, and three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians. Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U.S. and the world. On June 28, 1970, the first Gay Pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco[7] and Chicago commemorating the anniversary of the riots. Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots.
 

LINKS:

 

Stonewall & Gay Pride: Echoes From 1969

Wikipedia: Stonewall Riots

History Channel: Stonewall Riots

Stonewall Riots: Beginning of the LGBT Movement

 


LGBT Historical Overview

 

1900-1949

 

People: Willa Cather, Bessie Smith, Oscar Wilde

 

1919 - Institute of Sexology founded.
1933 - Hitler bans gay press.
1934 - Gay people required to wear pink triangles in Nazi Germany.
1947 - First US lesbian magazine
1948 - Kinsey Report
 

1950-1964

 

People: Bayard Rustin, Noel Coward, Langston Hughes

 

1951 - Mattachine Society was found to help homosexuals realize their collective histories and experiences.
1953 - First publication of ONE appeared.
1955 - Daughters of Bilitis, a lesbian organization, forms.
1956 - Daughters of Bilitis publish first issue of The Ladder.
1957 - Kinsley Report revealed that 10% of population is predominantly homosexual.
1961 - Illinois becomes first state to decriminalize homosexual acts.
 

 

 

1965-1980

 

People: Harvey Milk, James Baldwin

 

1969 - Stonewall Riots
1970 - Chicago Gay Rally
1978 - Briggs Initiative appears on California Ballot.
1978 - Openly Gay council member Harvey Milk assassinated.
1979 - California Supreme court rules against discrimination from public utility companies.
1979 -100,000 attend National March in Washington DC.
 

1981-1984

 

People: Tennessee Williams, Martina Navratilova

 

1981 - First report of what is now called AIDS.
1981 - Wisconsin passes first gay rights bill.
1982 - First Gay Games
1982 - Center for Disease Control investigates what is being called a "Gay Plague"
1984 - Federal Officials announce discovery of first probable cause of AIDS.
1984 - The Wall Street Journal permits use of the word "gay".
1984 - 23 year old gay man assaulted by three teenagers.

 

   

 

1985-1989

 

People: Barney Frank, Rita Mae Brown, Richard Chamberlain, Elton John

 

1985 - First International Conference on AIDS held.
1986 - Reagan Administration states that treatment of persons with AIDS was not a federal concern.
1987 - AIDS Memorial Quilt unveiled.
1987 - National March draws record crowds
1988 - 10th Annual National Coalition of Black Lesbians & Gays takes place

 

1990-1996

 

People: Gary Studds, KD Lang, Greg Louganis

 

1990 - Hate Crimes Statistics Bill passed through Congress.
1990 - AIDS Documentary wins Oscar.
1990 - Gay men and Lesbians accepted as Rabbis at 101st Annual Conference of American Rabbis.
1990 - Gay Games III held in Vancouver
1990 - Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement collection displayed at Smithsonian.
1991 - Amnesty International adopted jailed gay men and lesbians as prisoners conscience.
1991 - An appeals court recognized a homosexuals partner's rights as tantamount to those of a spouse.
1992 - AIDS Quilt was unfolded in its entirety on the Capitol Mall.
1992 - University of Iowa extended Health benefits to domestic partners of its gay and lesbian employees.
1992 - Canada allows gays and lesbians to serve in the military.
1992 - Massachusetts Governor Weld created the Governor's Commission on Gay and Lesbian Youth.
1992 - President Bill Clinton is first president to recognize gay and lesbian rights.
1993 - Grammy Award featured many openly gay and lesbian performers.
1993 - Strong genetic component to homosexuality found in study.
1993 - March on Washington, D.C. saw record breaking crowds
1994 - Gay Games IV took place in New York City

 

2000-2015

 

People: Jason Collins, Michael Sam, Caitlyn Jenner

 

2000 - Vermont becomes first state to legalize civil unions between gay and lesbian couples

2004 - Same sex marriages become legal in Massachusetts

2004 - U.S. Senate defeats measure to create constitutional amendment limiting marriage to heterosexual

2010 - Repeal of US Military's Don't Ask Don't Tell Policy

2012 - President Obama announces support for same-sex marriage rights

2013 - U.S. Supreme Court strikes down Defense of Marriage Act and California's Proposition 8

2013 - Jason Collins become first openly gay NBA athlete

2014 - Michael Sam becomes first openly gay NFL athlete

2014 - US Post Office issues Harvey Milk stamp

2014 - Boy Scouts end anti-gay policy and allow gay youth to join

2015 - U.S. Supreme Court declares same-sex marriage legal in United States

2015 - Bruce Jenner undergoes gender reassignment surgery and becomes Caitlyn Jenner

 

 


Relevant Resources

 

LGBT History Month
LGBT History Society
Equality Forum
Wikipedia LGBT People List
Answers.Com LGBT People List

UAB Safe Zone: Famous LGBT People
Notable LGBT People List
LGBT Celebrity List
LGBT Hall of Fame

Introduction to Modern Gay History
Wikipedia: The Stonewall Riots
Gay History & Literature By Rictor Norton
People With a History
Committee On Lesbian & Gay History
Wikipedia:History of Homosexuality
Gaire: Gay History

 

 

 


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ALGBTICAL

Association for Lesbian Gay Bisexual & Transgender Issues in Counseling of Alabama